types of coffee


  • 3/4 cup plus 2 tablespoons sugar
  • 1/4 cup plus 2 tablespoons water
  • 2 cups chilled whipping cream
  • 2 tablespoons (1/4 stick) unsalted butter
  • 2 tablespoons Irish whiskey
  • 1 tablespoon instant espresso powder or instant coffee powder
  • 1 1/4 teaspoons unflavored gelatin
  • 1/4 cup Baileys Original Irish Cream


  • Stir sugar and 1/4 cup water in heavy medium saucepan over low heat until sugar dissolves. Increase heat and boil without stirring until syrup turns deep amber color, brushing down sides of pan with pastry brush dipped into water and swirling pan occasionally. Add 1/2 cup cream and 2 tablespoons butter (mixture will bubble vigorously) and stir until caramel melts. Continue boiling 2 minutes. Spoon 2 tablespoons caramel into small saucepan and set aside at room temperature. Stir whiskey into remaining caramel in saucepan. Pour into bowl.
  • Stir 2 tablespoons water and espresso powder in another small saucepan until espresso dissolves. Sprinkle gelatin over. Let stand 10 minutes to soften. Stir gelatin mixture over low heat until melted. Stir gelatin mixture into caramel in bowl. Place bowl over large bowl filled with ice and water. Let stand until caramel mixture is cool but not set, stirring occasionally, about 10 minutes.
  • Using electric mixer, beat 1 1/2 cups cream in medium bowl to soft peaks. Fold 2 cups whipped cream into caramel mixture in bowl. Divide caramel mousse among 6 balloon-shaped wineglasses. Add Baileys to remaining whipped cream and continue beating until stiff. Spoon mixture into pastry bag fitted with star tip. Pipe atop mousse.

Let chill at least 3 hours. Can be made 1 day ahead. Original recipe& picture from Bon Appetit.


Because of the continuous blossoming of Coffea shrubs, the plants may carry fully ripe red cherries, overripe cherries, and green fruits simultaneously. Handpicking or “selective picking” is thus considered by many to be the best method of coffee harvesting. The green fruit is then allowed to stay on the tree for a later harvest and the overripe berries can be left to fall to the ground. This is less cost effective for many growers as it requires multiple harvests and manual labor.

A more commonly used method for harvesting coffee is known as “stripping.” The branches are stripped of the coffee cherries, either by hand or machine. Both ripe and unripe fruit would be included in this process. The berries are stripped off and often left to fall onto a sheet where they might be shaken to remove trigs, leaves, and debris. For coffee plants that mature uniformly, as in parts of Brazil, where the rainfall patterns are predictable, it is most cost effective to use this process, even with some overripe or unripe cherries included.

A third method of harvesting is known as mechanical harvesting. There are various types of mechanical systems used in this type and they all work to vibrate the coffee tree branches, causing the fruit to fall from the trees. As with the stripping method, the green, ripe, and overripe cherries are removed and are separated later. This works best in places where the coffee is grown in large fields on flat or gently rolling landscapes.
When the berries are picked (by stripping or mechanical harvesting methods) at all stages of maturity, and kept together, these are used for producing lower-quality coffees for mass consumption. The flavor of the under-ripened berries is more bitter and astringent. The red berries, at full ripeness, have more aromatic oils, less organic acids, and are much more fragrant, flavorful, smooth, and mellow. Because of these differences in flavor at different times of the growth cycle, harvesting is a very important stage in coffee production: The method chosen, and the time it is applied, will have a large influence on the quality of the coffee once it is in the cup.

For successful crops, the two major forms of coffee grown in the world today, Arabica and Robusta, need between 1500 and 3000 mm of rainfall per year. Droughts, frost, and high-winds can all impact a season’s harvest in any given area, which affects coffee stocks and prices. The trees also do not produce well in extremely hot weather. In fact, the ideal annual mean temperature is around 70 degrees F. Coffee trees produce berries at different times of the year, some with multiple harvests per year, depending on the location. For example, in Java, harvesting is practically continuous through the year while in Colombia there are two picking seasons, the main and the mitaca (the fly.) Coffee trees grow to between 15-30 feet, but are often pruned to reduce height for ease of picking. The leaves are dark green, shiny, elliptical-ovate in shape, and grow opposite and alternating one another. Robusta coffee trees depend on cross pollination, while the Arabicas are self-pollinating. Small white flowers, with a fragrance similar to jasmine, bloom in bunches just before the green coffee cherries appear. The flowers bloom for only a few days. The green cherries appear in clusters, and turn to yellow, orange, then red, and finally to a full deep red when they are mature and ready for harvest. The maturation from green to red takes about thirty to thirty-five weeks, although not all cherries on a tree or in a crop mature at the same time. The outside layer of the coffee fruit is a skin called the pulp. The next layer is mucilaginous and surrounds the two beans. In addition to this layer surrounding each bean individually, there is a tougher “parchment” as well as an inner, more delicate “silver skin.” The beans of Arabica and Robusta plants have two distinguishable shapes: The Arabica is a flat, oblong bean with a crooked furrow, while the Robusta is rounder and convex with a straight and even furrow through the center of the bean.

(Best Wishes for the New Year. Have a cup of Coffee!)

Coffee is grown in over eighty distinct regions in the tropical areas of the world. Different climate, soil types, elevation and horticultural, picking,  processing, and roasting methods contribute to the distinct coffee flavors associated with each region.

There are two major types of coffee beans used for the beverage we know and love: Arabica and Robusta. (A third, Liberian coffee, is quite rare.) The Arabicas are grown at higher elevations, usually over four thousand feet, and are generally more carefully tended than the Robustas. The Arabica berries are often hand picked at the optimum ripeness for each berry. They produce the finer grades of coffees enjoyed by the discerning coffee drinker.

The Robustas have been developed as a hardier tree and can be grown at much lower elevations. They are often machine harvested. They produce a coffee with a harsher and stronger flavor, as well as a higher caffeine content. The Robustas are valuable in blends, and are used in solubles and extracts to provide a strong flavor punch for flavoring food products. They are also much more affordable than the Arabicas.

Recent studies have begun to show that coffee has numerous beneficial health effects. From helping to prevent certain cancers, to supporting liver, kidney, and intestinal health, as well as providing other physical and psychological benefits, coffee can be a healthy addition to your diet. (See Health Benefits of Coffee for a more complete discussion.)

Incasa Coffee can provide wholesale soluble coffee, green and roasted coffees from around the World.

For more information on the characteristics of coffees from different regions, try visiting this website: